Acute renal failure is sudden renal damages and sharp fall of renal functions due to various causes. It can cause a series of symptoms and complications. In some cases, patients did not die of renal failure itself but because of the complications. Therefore it is necessary to know what complications will acute renal failure cause so as to take timely and proper prevention and treatments, reduce mortality and recover as much kidney function as possible.
1. Infections. Infection is one of the most common and serious complications. It is more common among renal failure due to severe physical traumas, burns and other high-decomposition acute renal failure. Common infections often occur in upper respiratory tract, bronchial, lung and urinary system and in serious conditions can even lead to sepsis. Therefore patients should pay attention to hygienes of oral cavity, skin and privates as well as infections of venous catheter and catheter.
2. Cardiovascular complications. Arrhythmia, heart failure, pericarditis and high blood pressure are the common complications in the cardiovascular system. Arrhythmia is often caused by electrolyte disorder, acidosis and retention of wastes and toxins. Heart failure is mainly due to water and sodium retention and increased cardiac load. Treatment for acute heart failure due to acute kidney failure is mainly to dilate blood vessels and diuretics.
3. Nervous complications. Patients will feel headache, sleepiness, muscle cramp, coma and epilepsy. These complications are due to retention of toxins, water poisoning, electrolyte disorder and disturbance of acid-base. Dialysis can help alleviate nervous symptoms and discomforts.
4. Digestive system complications. It manifests as loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and bleeding. Bleeding is mainly caused by gastrointestinal mucosal erosion or ulcer. In case of gastrointestinal bleeding, some medicines such as ranitidine, famotidene and omeprazole can be prescribed. And early preventive dialysis can help reduce the incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal bleeding.
5. Blood system complications. Sharp decline of renal functions can cause reduction of erythropoietin and anemia. Some patients can have disturbance of blood coagulation and have bleeding tendency.
6. Metabolic disorder, metabolic acidosis, high blood potassium, low blood sodium are all dangerous complications of acute renal failure.
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