After discharged from the hospital, acute renal failure patients should have regular reexaminations to have close monitoring of their serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, blood pressure, etc. At the same time, proper diets can help promote their recovery and protect their kidneys.
Under the premise of meeting patients’ need for proteins, limit daily protein intake to relieve burdens and strains to the kidneys especially if their blood urea nitrogen is still high. Animal protein is preferred than vegetable protein because they produce less nitrogen-related wastes and toxins after metabolism. Good proteins include lean meat, fish, chicken, shrimps, etc.
Renal failure patients often have high blood pressure which can be well controlled and prevented with low-salt diets. Limiting salt intake is especially important in case of swelling.
Renal failure often suffer from high blood potassium which can affect their heart function and in serious conditions can even cause sudden cardiac arrest. Therefore if patients already have hyperkalaemia, it is very important to limit high-potassium foods. Potassium content can be lowered after being frozen or boiled in water.
Acute renal failure patients should pay more attention to the supplement of water soluble vitamins such as vitamin E, selenium, folic acid and other antioxidants. Renal failure patients have more vitamin A in their body, therefore they need not supply vitamin A. Fresh vegetables and fruits are good sources of vitamins.
Proper water intake should depend on patients’ 24-h urine volume. During oliguria period, there should be strict restriction on water intake or too much fluid retention can cause acute pulmonary edema or dilution hyponatremia; during diuresis period, proper water and electrolytes should be supplied with increased urine output.
Renal failure patients should try to avoid hot pepper, chili, curry, fennel, chocolate, melon seed and peanuts as well as sea products, alcohol and tobacco, etc.
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