Acute renal failure can be caused by diseases in kidney itself or extra-renal factors. The causes of acute kidney failure can be classified into 3 categories---pre-renal, renal and post-renal.
Pre-renal causes include blood loss, shock, severe dehydration, electrolyte disorder, acute circulatory failure, etc. Renal causes include acute glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis, etc and post-renal causes include complete urinary obstruction. Among all these causes, the acute tubular necrosis is the most common and characteristic. There are a variety of reasons that can cause acute tubular necrosis, but generally they can be divided into two categories---renal ischemia and renal toxicity.
Here are several common conditions that can cause acute renal injuries and sharp decline and loss of kidney functions.
1. Physical traumas. Severe physical traumas such as crush injury, burns and shock can cause sudden fail of the kidneys. With development of transport and emergency treatment, the mortality due to this condition has been greatly reduced.
2. Infections. After biliary tract or gastrointestinal surgeries, some bacteria can cause sepsis or shock. Severe acute pyelonephritis and renal papilla necrosis can all cause acute kidney failure.
3. Primary diseases in other organs. Acute myocardial infarction, acute pancreatitis and viscera perforation can all cause renal failure. Timely and effective treatment can prevent death due to renal failure, but serious primary disease can cause death. Therefor effective treatments should aim at dealing with both renal failure and the primary diseases.
4. Cytoplasmic poisoning. Toxic substances and some medicines can poison the kidneys and cause acute tubular necrosis. Sometimes extensive liver damages will also be caused. Other factors that can cause cytoplasmic poisoning such as arsenic and methane can all cause aminoaciduria and renal tubular damages.
Knowing the causes of acute renal failure should provide guidance for its early and effective preventions and treatments.
Have early treatments once there is primary disease that can cause acute renal failure. Increase blood and oxygen supply, rectify disorders and imbalances of water and electrolytes and acid-base and recover renal perfusion and glomerular filtration rate.
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