Renal osteopathy, also called renal osteodystrophy is one common complication of the bone in chronic kidney failure. It is bone problem due to a variety of factors caused by decline of kidney functions including metabolic dysfunctions of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D, hyperparathyroidism, imbalance of acid-base, etc. It is often found in child patients, congenital renal malformation and chronically progressive renal diseases.
In early stage of kidney failure, there is something wrong with the excretion of phosphorus from the blood. Urine phosphorus will decrease and there will be excessive phosphorus in the blood and the blood calcium will decrease. As a result, there will be parathyroid hyperplasia and increased secretion of parathyroid hormone which can act on the bones to release Ca+ to recover blood calcium level. If kidney failure continues to deteriorate, patients will fall into a vicious circle and in the end develop osteitis fibrosa.
The symptoms of renal osteodystrophy are bone pain, pseudogout and pathological fracture. Bone deformities are common in children and adults mainly have spine bending, thoracic deformity.
Renal osteopathy has slow progression and usually it has been in the end stage when symptoms appear. It is mainly characterized by bone pain, fracture and bone deformation in clinic. In serious conditions, it can cause shortened height and ventilation disorder and children can have delayed growth.
Treatments for renal osteopathy include the following aspects.
1. Maintain normal levels of blood calcium and blood phosphorus.
2. Prevent and rectify hyperthyroidism and parathyroid hyperplasia.
3. Prevent and reverse extra-bone calcification.
4. Prevent the deposition of aluminum and other toxic substances.
5. Avoid contacts with adverse factors that are unrelated with treatments.
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