Kidney failure can be caused by a variety of renal injuries and renal impairments which can be roughly classified into renal parenchymal damages and renal vascular damages.
The kidneys consist of renal parenchyma (including renal cortex, renal medulla, glomeruli, renal tubules) and renal blood vessels (including renal artery and renal vein). Renal parenchymal diseases mean that renal impairments are located in renal parenchyma which is relative to renal pelvis. And if both kidneys are affected and damaged by the disease, it is called bilateral renal parenchymal impairments. When renal tissues are severely damaged, there will be a series of internal disorders and imbalances in the body and excessive water, electrolytes and metabolic wastes will build up in the body resulting in high creatinine, edema, high blood pressure and will eventually progress into end stage renal failure if left untreated.
Renal parenchyma is further divided into renal cortex and renal medulla. Renal parenchymal disease is thus not an independent disease but the general term for a group of pathological conditions in the kidneys.
The common causes of renal parenchymal impairments include the following ones.
High blood pressure
Congenital renal agenesis
Urinary tract obstruction. Urinary tract obstruction can be caused by a variety of pathological conditions such as renal cyst, polycystic kidney disease, kidney stone, etc.
Renal vascular diseases usually will lead to renal parenchymal damages due to inadequate blood, oxygen and nutrition supply to renal tissues.
Since there are many conditions that can cause renal parenchymal impairments, it is necessary to go to specialized kidney disease hospital for further inquiry and diagnosis for the underlying cause.
Renal parenchymal impairments usually will cause high blood pressure or worsen the already existing hypertensions, therefore timely and proper treatments for lowering blood pressure is very crucial for a better prognosis and delayed progression into renal failure for those that are diagnosed with renal parenchymal disease.
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