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Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Failure(CRF)

Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Failure is a severe stage of kidney disease with Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) falling at 15-30ml/min. The patients have their kidney function severely declined which can cause systemic symptoms. The patients at this stage, on the hand, should take special care for dietary, lifestyle modifications to control the illness condition and avoid burdening kidneys; on the other hand, receive treatments that improve the kidneys and avoid threatening complications.

As kidney function deteriorates, metabolic wastes can accumulate in bloodstream to cause a medical condition called as "Uremia". As the kidneys can not as effectively produce erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates production red blood cells, the patients at stage 4 Kidney failure will develop anemia. The kidneys regulate levels of electrolytes, and in stage 4 kidney failure it is common the patients have high potassium, high phosphorus, low calcium, high sodium, etc. High potassium may cause irregular heartbeats, high sodium worsens fluid retention and elevates blood pressure, and elevated phosphorus can cause unhealthy bones.

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