A urine concentration test helps to reflect the ability of distal renal tubules to conserve or excrete water. For people with Chronic Renal Failure, because of damaged renal tubules, they usually have decreased urine concentration.
In normal cases, blood flow into kidney and through a network of structures known as nephrons that allow fluid and salts to flow across a semi-permeable membrane. Some fluids, electrolytes, harmful substances and a small amount of nutrition pass through glomerular filtration membrane and flow into renal tubules which reabsorb most of the nutritions and fluids and only allows the harmful substances and excessive fluids. Excess fluids and harmful substances are finally discharge out of our body as the form of urine.
Our body regulates urine concentration to maintain a stable balance of fluids in the blood chemistry. In clinic, increased urine concentration may indicate dehydration, diarrhea that leads to dehydration, excessive sweating that leads to dehydration, glycosuria, heart failure, renal arterial stenosis and vomiting and so on.
For people with Chronic Renal Failure, their renal tubules are damaged and fail to perform renal absorption function. Under such a condition, fluids and nutrition filtered by glomeruli can not be reabsorbed effectively, as a result of which, concentration of harmful substance in urine decreases. This is the reason why Chronic Renal Failure patients have decreased urine concentration.
Aside from Chronic Renal Failure, there are some other causes for decreased urine concentration and they are excessive fluid intake, diabetes insipidus and pyelonephritis. As many illness condition can cause abnormal urine concentration test result, it is necessary for patients to have further examination to found out the root cause of it and then take corresponding medical treatment.
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