We know that chronic kidney failure can be sub-divided into 5 stages according to clinical manifestations and severity of renal damages by measuring patients’ GFR (glomerular filtration rate). Therefore it is important and necessary to know the early signs and indicators for an early detection and diagnosis of kidney failure so as to prevent continuous aggravation and avoid entering into end stage renal failure.
The typical symptoms indicating renal failure:
1. Illness history of increase night urination. If urine output at night excesses 1/2 of that in the daytime, it indicates concentration dysfunction of the distal renal tubules.
2. Oliguria in the early stage. Oliguria means daily urine output less of 400ml. Usually there will be oliguria in end stage renal disease when creatinine clearance rate is less than 10ml/min. Therefore if there appears oliguria in the early stage, it indicates chronic renal failure.
3. Anemia. Nearly all chronic renal failure patients have anemia. Anemia is more common in glomerular and vascular renal failure and less common or slighter in tubular and interstitial renal failure.
In case of the above mentioned symptoms, the following examinations are recommended.
1. Blood test. Obvious anemia, leukocyte is normal or higher, platelet is lower and cell sedimentation rate increases.
2. Urine test. Urine osmotic pressure and urine output is reduced, urine protein quantitative is increased. In urinary sediment examination, there will be red blood cell, white blood cell, epithelial cell, granular cast and waxy cast.
3. Kidney function. All terms will be reduced.
4. Biochemical examination. Plasma albumin is decreased, blood calcium is lower and blood phosphorus is higher. The levels of blood potassium and blood sodium vary according to illness conditions.
5. Other tests include X-ray, MRI, Isotope Renography, renal biopsy, etc.
Since kidney failure is not a single disease and it can be caused by many diseases and therefore accurate tests and diagnosis is of great significance for more effective and accurate treatments.
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