Long term hypertension and diabetes are two major causes of renal failure, therefore more attention should be paid if you have years of high blood pressure or high blood glucose which are not well controlled.
Usually more than 5 years poorly controlled diabetes will begin to damage the kidney and renal functions will experience irreversible and rapid decline when clinical proteinuria occurs. Diabetes is characterized by high blood glucose level which will increase permeability of blood vessels, cause protein leakage in urine and glomerular sclerosis. High blood sugar can also damage small blood vessels in the whole body and reduce blood flow to the kidneys and this will affect normal functions of the kidneys.
Inadequate blood and oxygen supply to the kidneys will cause ischemia and hypoxia and if these conditions last for long time without any alleviation, renal intrinsic cells and tissues will be damaged and kidney functions will be gradually lost and lead to renal failure.
As for hypertension, usually more than 5-10 years high blood pressure can cause renal damages. High blood pressure and kidney damage will worsen each other and make patients fall into a vicious circle. High blood pressure can cause high perfusion in the kidney and speed up glomerular sclerosis. High blood pressure can damage renal vessels and cause inadequate blood supply to the kidneys, resulting in hypertensive kidney damages and renal failure.
Early detection of renal damages
A test called microalbuminuria is recommended which can detect early renal damages and prevent progressing into end stage renal failure if effective and timely treatments are received. Microalbuminuria means that there are more than normal amount of albumins being leaked into urine. It is the early indicator of pathological changes in the kidneys and cardiovascular system and it is the most reliable and accurate index for detecting kidney disease in the early stage.
Therefore if you have hypertension or diabetes or both, it is recommended that you should take microalbuminuria regularly so as to have early diagnosis and timely treatments.
Low-protein diet is good for controlling high blood pressure and high blood sugar. Ask for a dietitian’s suggestions for proper and healthy amount of daily protein intake according to your specific illness conditions.
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