It is a common symptom that patients suffer from seizure in dialysis. Seizures often occur during dialysis or shortly after the dialysis procedure. Seizures are symptoms of brain problem, and they are caused by sudden, abnormal electrical activities in the brain. What are the reasons that cause seizures in dialysis patients? There are some main factors.
1. Electrolyte disorders, such as hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia and hypernatremia. For patients in dialysis, their kidney function usually has been damaged more than 85% . Dialysis just replaces partial kidney function, and in the early dialysis, electrolytes like calcium, potassium are still imbalanced. Electrolyte disorders lead to seizures.
2. Drugs like erythropoietin, carbapenem and ertapenem may also worsen patients’ seizures. Therefore, for people on dialysis, they should pay attention to the use of drugs.
3. Hemodynamic instability: dialysis helps to remove excessive fluid in such a short time that it is easy to cause hemodynamic instability, then it leads to seizures.
4. Aluminum intoxication: dialysis fluid contains aluminum-containing compound which can produce aluminum. When patients take dialysis for a long time, much aluminum builds up in their bodies. Finally, it leads to aluminum intoxication.
5. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome: it is a central nervous system disorder, and it can cause muscle cramp, anorexia and dizziness. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is due primarily to cerebral edema. Patients run higher risk of seizures in this situation.
In addition, seizures may be caused by cerebrovascular diseases such as hypertensive encephalopathy, infarction, hemorrhage, and subdural hematoma. All of these symptoms are associated closely with long-term dialysis. What’s worse, aggressive dialysis may result in seizure activity directly.
Patients with seizures in dialysis need to receive treatment immediately, otherwise it may cause more severe complications. If seizures are severe and unable to control, dialysis must be stopped. To ease seizures, patients can take some antiepileptic drugs like phenytoin. However, you should take them with the guidance of doctors.
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