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How to Diagnose End Stage Renal Failure

2013-02-03 11:44

There are some general and typical symptoms for patients that are in end stage of renal failure. In case of the following symptoms and signs, it is recommended that patients should go to the hospital and have early detections so as not to lose the chance of receiving timely and effective treatments and measures.

How to diagnosis ESRD?

Your doctors may order blood test and urine test to measure your remaining kidney functions. In this final stage, kidney has lower than 10% of its normal functions. What is more, end stage patients will have much reduce urine output or no urine at all. Since kidneys have endocrine functions besides discharging metabolic wastes and excessive water, failed kidney will cause anemia, bone disease and a series of complications, therefore the tests of erythropoietin, PTH and bone density are also very important.

Besides routine urine and blood tests, other tests and laboratory examinations will be measured.

Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) will be much higher than normal values due to declined renal functions.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is lower than 15ml/min in end stage renal failure.

Serum electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium, etc. Abnormal serum electrolytes can rise or decrease to dangerous level and in some severe conditions require immediate dialysis.

Imaging tests such as B ultrasound, CT scan and MRI. They can take picture of the kidneys and show weather there is urinary tract obstruction, kidney stone or kidney cysts as well as changes in renal size.

Kidney biopsy can help make clear the pathological type and exact causes of renal failure.

What are the symptoms of end-stage renal failure?

General ill feeling

Reduced urine volume




Loss of appetite and loss of weight


Itching and dry skin

Abnormal skin color


Other symptoms end-stage renal disease may include:

Bone pain

Numbness and muscle cramps

Easy bruising

Excessive thirst

Frequent hiccups

Low libido or impotence

Problems in concentrating

Difficulty in breath and sleeping such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg


Gastrointestinal bleeding

High blood pressure

Changes in blood sugar

Congestive heart failure

Coronary artery disease


High level blood phosphorus

High level blood potassium

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