End-stage renal failure is the final stage of kidney disease in which total or almost total kidney functions have been lost and patients will need to rely on renal replacement therapy, weather dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life.
Almost all end stage kidney failure cases progress from chronic kidney disease which is most often caused by high blood pressure and diabetes. CKD is a group of renal disorders and different primary disease has different progression rate and usually it takes about 10-20 years to develop into end stage renal disease. Besides, large amount of blood loss or physical traumas in kidneys can also cause sharp fail of kidneys and lead to end stage renal failure.
In this stage patients need to take renal replacement therapy---either dialysis or kidney transplant to replace functions of failed kidneys.
Dialysis mainly consists of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis which is a machine to replace the functions of the failed kidneys to discharge excessive wastes and water out of the body so as to purify the blood and alleviate symptoms and discomforts. But it can not reverse or stop the continuous deterioration of kidney disease.
Kidney transplant is to transplant a healthy kidney to replace the failed kidney and it can help patients get rid of dialysis and regain kidney functions. However not every end stage patient has the chance to have this surgery due to extreme scarcity of matching kidney donors, not to mention the huge cost and life-long taking of anti-rejection medicines.
Herbal medicines can be combined with dialysis for those that have no chance to do kidney transplant. Some herbs have the effects of alleviating discomforts of kidney disease and side effects after long term dialysis. What is more, adhering to herbal medicines can repair kidney damages and recover part kidney functions.
Treatments also include some symptomatic medicines and supplements for alleviating high blood phosphorus, anemia, bone diseases, etc.
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