For end stage renal disease patients, they have to take dialysis, weather hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis so as to alleviate symptoms and sustain life expectancy.
However, dialysis is just a machine to replace part of kidney functions. What is more, long term dialysis will cause a lot of complications and side effects.
The following are the common complications that hemodialysis might bring so that you can have early detection and timely preventions once there is any sign.
1. Low blood pressure
A variety of reasons in dialysis can cause blood pressure to drop more than 10mmHg such as too fast ultrafiltration, use of antihypertensive drugs before dialysis, arrhythmia, heart ischemia, bleeding, hemolysis, air embolism, etc. Proper and timely measures should be taken to rectify any inducement of low blood pressure.
2. Muscle cramp
Reduced blood perfusion in the muscle due to low blood pressure, low blood volume, fast ultrafiltration and low-sodium dialysate is the main cause of muscle cramp. Besides, disorders of electrolytes and acid-base can also cause muscle cramp.
3. Nausea and vomiting
The common causes are low blood pressure, imbalance syndrome, dialyser reaction, polluted dialysate or abnormal component of electrolytes such as high sodium or high calcium.
Imbalance syndrome, serious high blood pressure and cerebrovascular accidence can cause headache.
5. Back pain and chest pain.
Myocardial ischemia, hemolysis, low blood pressure, air embolism, pericarditis and pleurisy can cause back pain and chest pain.
6. Skin itching
Skin itching is might related to metabolic disorder of calcium and phosphorus, accumulation of wastes and toxins in the body or dialysis. Some medicines and liver diseases can also be possible causes.
7. Imbalance syndrome
It often occurs at the latter stage of dialysis. In mild conditions, patients might have headache, nausea, vomiting, irritation and in severe conditions they may have tic, consciousness disturbance or even coma.
Besides the above mentioned discomforts and complications, long term hemodialysis can cause many other side effects such as arrhythmia, air embolism, fever and hemolysis, etc.
Many of the above mentioned side effects have interactions and one might cause another, therefore once there is any discomfort or abnormality, report it to the doctor immediately and have proper adjustments and treatments.
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