Hematuria is extremely normal for kidney disease patients, but unfortunately, most of them have no idea about the exact type of their hematuria. Hematuria is clinically divided into gross hematuria and microscopic hematuria on the basis of whether blood urine is visible. However, this is not the only classify of hematuria, and according to causes of it, hematuria can be divided into glomerular hematuria, nonglomerular hematuria and mixed glomerular hematuria.
At present, phase-contrast urine microscopy and automated peripheral blood cell counter are the most commonly used medical methods that can help to distinguish glomerular hematuria and nonglomerular hematuria. Compared with nonglomerular hematuria, glomerular hematuria has the following several characteristics:
1. Glomerular erythrocytes have small size and changed shape (usually more than 75% red blood cells have changed side and shape), compared with nonglomerular erythrocytes and this is caused by the extrusion while red blood cells pass through glomerular filtration membrane. We know in normal cases, red blood cells are not allowed to pass through filtration membrane, and once the membrane is damaged, they leaked out during which they have their shape changed.
2. Glomerular erythrocytes look more pale which occurs because erythrocytes lose a large amounts of their hemoglobin pigment while passing glomerular filtration membrane.
3. Glomerular hematuria is commonly companied by glomerlar bleeding.
Through analysing hematuria, we can know clearly whether our hematuria is caused by damaged glomerular filtration membrane or not. In some cases, patients may be told about a half of red blood cells in their urine are normal and another half of red blood cells are misshapen. In that cases, they can be diagnosed with mixed hematuria which both their glomerular filtration membrane and other kidney tissue are damaged.
Analysis of hematuria is of important clinical significance, so it is necessary for kidney disease patients to found out the exact type of their hematuria. Only with a clear cause, can we choose the right medicine or treatment.
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