The kidneys are main filtering organs of human body. The kidneys are chiefly responsible for filtering bloodstream and stopping proteins from leaking into urine.
1. 24h total urine protein(U-TP)
The urine is collected in 24 hours and the total amount of protein in urine will be evaluated. If the kidneys are healthy working, 24h urine protein is no more than 0.5g. 24h urine protein>150mg is a sign for impaired renal filtration functions.
2. Urine microalbuminuria(U-malb)
Urine microalbuminuria test can detect early damage of glomerular mechanical filtration barrier functions. Urine microalbuminuria higher than 30mg/L is a sign for impaired glomerular mechanical filtration barrier functions.
3. Urine transferrin (U-TRF)
Urine transferrin test can detect early damages of the charge barrier functions on glomerular filtration membrane. Urine transferrin over 1.9mg/L will be an abnormal test result to diagnose glomerular damage.
4. Urine Immunoglobulin G(U-IGG)
Heavy loss of urine IgG, or urine IGG over 8.8 mg/L, is a sign that glomerular filtration membrane is severely impaired.
5. Urine beta 2 microglobulin test(beta 2-M)
Beta 2 microglobulin can suggest damaged renal tubular reabsorption functions. Beta-2 M higher than 5.8mg/L is a sign for impaired tubules.
6. Urine α1-microalbumin (α1-M)
Urine α1-M can reflect damaged reabsorption functions of renal tubules, even more sensitive and stable than beta-2 microglobulin.
7. α2 macroglobulin(α2-M)
Elevation in urine α2 macroglobulin is an indicator for post-renal proteinuria and hematuria.
8. Urine NAG
It is a sign for inflammatory injury on renal tubular epithelial cells.
9. Urine GGT
Urine GGT test can indicate inflammatory damage on renal tubular epithelial cells, especially the autoimmune damages.
10. Urine osmotic pressure
Urine osmotic pressure will help to evaluate concentration and dilution functions of distal renal tubules.
11. k light chain
Elevation in k light chain suggests pre-renal proteinuria, which can be seen in light chain disease, multiple myeloma and Lymphoma.
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