Kidney failure patients often suffer from malnutrition due to metabolic disorders, poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, digestive difficulty, diet restrictions. Malnutrition is not good for the patients. It will further lower the immunity, delay healing and recovery and induce complications.
Proper diets can help kidney failure patients to relieve strains to the kidneys, reduce or eliminate symptoms, intensify the body’s disease-resistance and prevent further deterioration of illness conditions.
There are many underlying causes of kidney failure and kidney failure will be further divided into 5 stages, different diets will be offered according to the patients’ kidney function and illness conditions.
1. Non-diabetic kidney failure: daily calorie intake is 30-35kcal/kg; protein intake for stage 1 and stage 2 renal failure is 0.8g/kg/d, for stage 3 is 0.6g/kg/d and for stage 4 is 0.4g/kg/d.
2. Diabetic kidney failure: daily calories intake is 30-35kcal/kg and if the patient is over-weight, calorie should be reduced. Daily protein intake is 0.6g/kg.
For kidney failure patients that have not begun dialysis, phosphorus intake should be less than 800mg/d.
Dialysis will cause the loss of some nutritions, therefore some nutritions should be increased compared with before dialysis. Daily calorie is almost the same as before dialysis. Proper supplement of iron, folic acid and vitamins should be given to deal with anemia during dialysis.
1. Hemodialysis. Daily protein intake should be 1.2g/kg.
2. Peritoneal dialysis. Patients on peritoneal dialysis should have even more proteins than those that are on hemodialysis. Proper protein intake is 1.3g/kg.
Why it is important that kidney failure patients should have low-protein diets?
Kidney failure patients often have protein metabolic disorder and metabolic wastes of proteins such as urea, creatinine, guanidines will accumulate in the body and cause uremic states. Low-protein diets can reduce the production and accumulation of uremic wastes so as to reduce burdens to the kidneys and slow illness progression.
When should kidney failure patients begin low-protein diets.
So long as kidney functions are damaged, low-protein diet is necessary. For stage 3-4 kidney failure patients, they can have some ketosteril along with low-protein diets.
Other nutritional elements such as iron, folic acid, salt, water should have proper supplement or reduction according to the patient’s specific illness conditions.
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