Proper diet adjustment according to the patients’ illness and physical conditions is the most fundamental and effective measure for non-dialysis treatments and is also the basis for all medicines and treatments.
Proper foods and eating habits have the following benefits to renal failure patients:
Maintain good nutritional state
Slow down the illness progression of renal failure
Prevent and alleviate metabolic disorders
Put off dialysis and reduce the frequency of dialysis for those who have begun dialysis.
The general beneficial diet principles for renal failure patients are high-quality low protein, high calorie and moderate vitamins and minerals, limit the intake of sodium, potassium, purine and fats.
To make it more specific, we will give you some examples.
1. Water. If patients begin to have reduced urine output, edema, elevated blood pressure or even pulmonary edema, then there should be strict restriction on water intake. Generally proper intake of water should be 24-h urine output plus 500ml.
2. High quality protein. High quality proteins contain a lot of essential amino acids and will produce less protein-related metabolic wastes at the same time of providing necessary nutrition to the body. They include egg white, milk, fish and lean meat. The amount of protein intake should depends on serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance rate and generally it should not exceed 0.6g/kg. One large egg contains about 6.5g protein and egg white contains 3.6g protein.
3. Salt. The majority of CRF patients have high blood pressure, therefore low-salt diet is very important because well controlling of blood pressure can much slow down the rate of glomerular sclerosis and delay the total loss of kidney functions. Do not eat too much fast foods and while preparing meals by yourself, use herbs and other low-salt seasonings like vinegar, cinnamon to replace salt and soy sauce.
4. Phosphorus. Excessive phosphorus in blood can cause skin itching and bone diseases, therefore do not have too much high-phosphorus foods such as dairy products, whole grain bread, animal offals if you begin to have itching skin and bone problems.
5. Potassium. Too high blood potassium can cause severe arrhythmia and even lead to death, therefore limit potassium intake especially when daily urine volume is less than 1000ml. High-potassium foods include spinach, banana, coffee, strong tea, etc.
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