Chronic renal failure is characterized by retention of metabolic wastes and toxins, disturbed water, electrolyte and acid-base as well as endocrine dyscrasia with the progressive and irreversible loss of kidney functional units.
The common discomforts and symptoms are metabolic acidosis, water metabolic disorder, hyponatremia, hypokalaemia, hyperkalaemia, low serum calcium and high serum phosphorus, etc.
What we eat will have a great impact on these metabolic disorders and electrolyte imbalances. Proper diets can not only provide necessary nutritions to the body but also can help reduce burdens to the kidneys, slow down and prevent further deterioration of illness condition and has certain relation to the prognosis of renal failure.
The general diet principle for renal failure are three highs, four lows and two propers.
Three highs: high calcium, high essential amino acids and high carbohydrates
Four lows: low salt, low potassium, low phosphorus, low fat
Two propers: proper vitamins and proper trace elements
And for each patient, what he should eat should take into several factors
·Kidney failure that have edema and high blood pressure
Limit salt intake (<3g/d)
Limit water intake (24-h urine output+ 500ml)
Limit high-potassium foods such as longan, tremella, chicken powder, spinach, bamboo shoot, tomato, carrot, orange, peach, etc.
·Kidney failure that haven’t begun dialysis
Low high-quality proteins such as fish, lean meat, milk, egg white, etc.
High calcium and low phosphorus. Avoid chocolate, egg yolk, animal offals, etc. Have cabbage, celery, cane, etc.
Low fat. Avoid fried foods, animal fat and have margarine and plant oils such as olive oil, corn oil and linseed oil.
·Kidney failure that have started dialysis
For those that have begun dialysis, diets should not be strictly restricted. Proper diet plan should be made according to the patients’ height, body weight, dialysis way, dialysis frequency and urine volume.
Calories: 3500-4000 kcal
Potassium: less than 2000mg/d if there is no urine
Sodium: less than 1-2g/ for on urine
Water: less than 1000ml/d
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