For kidney failure patients, toxins and wastes produced by what they eat can not be discharged outside efficiently, therefore they should pay more attention to what they eat so as to reduce burdens to the kidneys.
Proper and reasonable diets can alleviate retention of metabolic wastes in the body and slow down the progression and worsening of renal failure. On the contrary, improper diets will have direct impact on their illness and recovery.
Kidney failure patients need to monitor their serum potassium level and in case of hyperkalaemia, high-potassium fruits and vegetables should be avoided or limited.
High-potassium vegetables include: spinach, mushroom, seaweed, kelp, potato, etc.
High-potassium fruits: banana, tomato, jujube, orange, mango, persimmon, grapefruit, carambola, etc.
Low-potassium fruits: pineapple, papaya, strawberry, lemon, etc. can be eaten, but the amount should not be too much.
Besides, kidney failure patients should limit the intake of protein, sodium, phosphorus and water.
Too much protein will produce more protein-related metabolic wastes and increase burdens to the kidneys. 0.6g/kg every day is recommended and high-quality proteins like milk, egg white, fish and lean meat is preferred.
However for those that have begun dialysis, they need to consult the physician or dietitian for the proper protein intake because there will be different degrees’ protein loss during dialysis.
Water and sodium
Too much body fluid retention will cause edema, failure of heart and lungs and worse renal failure, therefore proper amount of water and sodium is very important. Proper water intake is the former day’s urine volume plus 500-750ml.
Too high serum phosphorus can cause calcium loss and osteoporosis and sometimes doctor can prescribe some medicines to cope with high phosphorus level. High blood phosphorus can cause skin itching, bone pain and joint discomforts such as stiffness and pain.
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