Chronic kidney failure can be classified into 5 stages according to the severity of renal damages and the remaining kidney functions. Each stage has different clinical symptoms.
Besides typical symptoms of most kidney diseases such as edema, high blood pressure, urine changes, chronic kidney failure actually will affect the whole body.
In the early stage such as stage 1 and stage 2, patients can have no obvious symptoms or they can only have slight discomforts such as fatigue, back pain, frequent night urination, poor appetite, metabolic acidosis or mild anemia.
Kidney functions will experience gradual loss in chronic renal failure and when it progresses into the third stage or more advanced stages, the above mentioned symptoms will become more obvious and serious. Besides, patients will develop many other serious complications such as hyperkalaemia, gastrointestinal bleeding, central nervous system disorders, etc.
The following is more detailed introduction of symptoms that chronic renal failure patients will experience.
Metabolic disorders of water, electrolytes and acid-base balance
The damaged kidneys can not function well to timely discharge excessive water, electrolytes from the blood or balance the levels.
Metabolic acidosis can cause loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, etc;
Distention of water and sodium can cause edema, effusion in body cavities, high blood pressure, chocking sensation in the chest, etc.
Hyperkalaemia can cause severe damages to heart and respiratory muscles;
High blood phosphorus and low blood calcium can cause hyperparathyroidism and bone problems;
Metabolic disturbances of protein, sugar and fat
Due to metabolic disorders of protein, sugar and fat, CRF patients will have elevated creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and other nitrogenous wastes, reduced glucose tolerance, low blood sugar, high triglyceride and cholesterol, etc.
Besides renal failure patients may develop symptoms and complications in many other systems and organs such as the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, blood system, neuromuscular system, endocrine disorders and bone problems.
Cardiovascular lesions are the major complication and the most common cause of death for renal failure patients, therefore timely and effective treatments should be sought if patients begin to develop cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, pericarditis, vascular calcification, atherosclerosis, etc.
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