Hyperphosphatemia is a form of electrolyte imbalance which occurs easily in renal failure. Here, we will give an introduction about what is hyperphosphatemia, what are the effects of it, how renal failure cause hyperphosphatemia and how to manage it.
What is hyperphosphatemia?
Hyperphatemia is the presence of elevated phosphorus level in blood. Average phosphorus levels should be between 0.81mmol/L and 1.45mmol/L (different from country to country). And when lab test shows a high phosphorus level in blood, hyperphosphatemia is diagnosed.
What are the effects of hyperphosphatemia?
Both calcium and phosphorus are essential minerals for a healthy body. Under normal circumstances, ratio of calcium and phosphorus is kept in a stable value, so when phosphorus level in blood is higher than the normal range, calcium level in the body will decrease. Calcium plays a crucial role for a strong bone, so when hyperphosphatemis occurs, patients will be at high risk for various bone problems like bone pain, bone fracture and even osteoporosis.
How is renal failure associated with hyperphosphatemia?
Renal failure can cause fluctuation of phosphorus level in blood, as kidney is the organ that is in charge of keeping electrolyte balance. When kidneys are damaged, kidney function is impaired, large amounts of phosphorus will build up in blood, thus leading to hyperphosphatemia.
Management of hyperphatemia in renal failure
To get hyperphatemia managed well, the following tips should be kept in mind by renal failure patients:
1. Avoid foods high in phosphorus like all-bran cereal, almonds, beef, brazil nuts, cashew nuts, cheese, chicken, dried fruit, egg, garlic, halibut fish hard potatoes and herring and so on.
2. Try to eat more foods high in calcium and if necessary, try dietary calcium supplement.
3. Phosphate binders can be taken if phosphorus level is much higher than the normal range.
4. Bring blood pressure, proteinuria and anemia under control. This will help to prevent further kidney damages and thus avoid further rise of phosphorus level in blood.
5. Treat renal failure actively. Hyperphosphatemia occurs as affected kidneys fail to discharge excess phosphorus. From this point of view, only when renal failure is treated and kidney function gets improved, can hyperphosphatemia be treated radically.
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