Almost every PKD patient or their relatives know Polycystic Kidney Disease is a inherited kidney problem. It pass on from generation to generation, so people with parents suffering from PKD are at high risk to develop this disease. However, according to clinical survey, although most of the patients know PKD is a genetic disease, almost all of them do not know how Polycystic Kidney Disease is inherited.
To know how Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is inherited, firstly we will need to have some basic knowledge on inheritance. Human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes, with one in the chromosome coming from the mother and the other from the mother. Chromosomes are made of gene pairs containing DNA. The genes can be dominant, recessive and co-dominant. A dominant gene means that the disease trait appears only when one in the gene pair is mutated. A recessive gene means that the disease appears when both of the genes carry the mutation.
85% of the mutations in ADPKD occur in chromosome 16(PKD1 gene), and 15% of mutations occur in chromosome 4(PKD2 gene). Only one mutated gene is required for ADPKD to occur. There is usually a family history of ADPKD, and each child who carries a mutated gene will have ADPKD. ARPKD results from a mutation in chromosome 6(PKHD gene). Both of the genes in the pair must carry the mutation for the disease to occur. There is usually no family history of ARPKD because each parent only has one mutated gene.
Since Polycystic Kidney Disease is a inherited kidney problem, so it is necessary for PKD parents to be cautious as they may give birth to a Polycystic Kidney Disease baby easily. At presents many tests can be help to detect if the baby has PKD gene before they born, so finding a good doctor and having an overall tests is very necessary for PKD parents to give birth to a healthy baby.
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