Kidney has the functions of producing urine, filtering metabolic wastes and toxins out of the blood and at the same time maintaining balances of water, electrolytes and acid-base. In case of kidney failure, some useful substances will leak into urine such as red blood cells and proteins while the metabolic wastes and toxins will stay in the body and cause a series of symptoms and discomforts.
Too much water retention or acidosis will cause shortness of breath, anhelation and severe acidosis can cause deep and long breath. Excessive body fluid, cardiac insufficiency can cause pulmonary edema or pleural effusion.
Excessive accumulation of metabolic toxins can increase the alveolar capillary permeability and cause pulmonary congestion. Patients can experience extreme difficulty breathing, orthopnea, cyanosis, paroxysmal cough and there are butterfly-shaped shadows in the X-ray of the chest. Timely application of diuretic or dialysis can quickly relieve the symptoms.
As for the pleural effusion, it is actually effusion in the pleural cavity. Under normal circumstances, there are 3-15ml fluid in the pleural cavity which has the function of lubrication while in respiration. Pleural fluid is not fixed and even healthy people have about 500-1000ml fluid forming and being re-absorbed within 24 hours. Its filtration and absorption is in a dynamic balance. When this balance and order is disturbed by local or systemic pathology, such as in case of kidney failure, the formation of pleural fluid will be too fast or the re-absorption is too slow, there will be pleural effusion.
When there are too much fluid in the pleural cavity, the two pleura will be separated and chest pain will be alleviated because they will not rub with respiration. However, breathing will become more difficult. Large amount of pleural effusion will oppress the mediastinum organs and cause palpitation.
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