Kidney is vital organ for maintaining normal metabolism and stability of our body’s internal environment. Kidneys can remove excessive water, electrolytes and metabolic wastes outsides with urine so as to ensure the balances of water, electrolyte and acid-base. Kidneys also have endocrine function and it can secrete renin, erythropoietin, active vitamin D3, prostaglandins, etc.
In case of renal failure, kidney functions are greatly affected and as a result there will be a series of disorders and imbalances in the patients’ body and they will develop many symptoms and signs.
The common and typical symptoms of kidney failure include edema (swelling), high blood pressure, oliguria or anuria, diuresis, frequent urination, blood in urine, foams in urine, back pain and other systemic symptoms and discomforts.
·Edema. It usually first occurs to the eyelid, ankle, back and hip. In severe conditions patients can have ascites and pleural effusion which can severely affect their breath and sleep. At the same time of edema, patients can have reduced urine output and body weight gain.
·High blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure is often the sign of illness worsening. Differentiation should be made to determine weather it is renal hypertension or renal failure caused by primary high blood pressure. Well control of high blood pressure is good for reducing protein leakage in urine.
·Oliguria or even anuria. Under normal circumstances, daily urine volume for men is 1500-2000 and 1000-1500 for women. 24-h urine volume less than 400ml is called oliguria and less than 100ml is anuria. Reduced urine output can not remove metabolic wastes and toxins efficiently out of the body and it can not regulate and balance water and electrolytes.
·Diuresis and frequent night urination. It is called diuresis if 24-h urine volume exceeds 2500ml. Diuresis and frequent night urination indicates dysfunction of tubular concentration ability.
·Frequent urination. Urinary frequency means that the patients often have the feeling of passing urine, while urine output in each time is small amount. They can also have urinary urgency and urinary pains.
·Blood in urine. Blood in urine may not be seen with naked eyes. If the blood can be seen with naked eyes, it is usually caused by kidney stone, tumors, etc. If blood in urine can only be detected with microscope, it is in most cases caused by glomerular diseases.
·Foams in urine. It is due to more than normal proteins are being leaked in urine. Further tests like 24-h urinary protein quantitative and urinary protein electrophoresis are recommended to make clear the location and severity of renal damages.
·Back pain. The pain can be dull and persistent or it can be sharp and sudden. Back pain is often accompanied by blood in urine, infections and fever.
·Others. Other symptoms that kidney failure patients can have include lack of energy, poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, paleness, anemia, etc.
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