Hyperprolactinemia means there is higher than normal prolactin level in the blood and it is very common among chronic renal failure patients.
Prolactin is a hormone produced and released by anterior pituitary. During pregnancy and lactation, there will be increased prolactin being produced, that is why women have higher incidence to develop hyperprolactinemia than men since pregnancy is the most common cause of hyperprolactinemia. Men also produce prolactin, but the amount is smaller than that of women.
Prolactin is metabolized in the kidneys and liver and in case of renal failure, excessive accumulation of prolactin in the blood can not be discharged effectively, resulting in build up of prolactin in the blood---that is hyperprolactinemia.
The normal value of serum prolactin for women is 500mIU/L and 450mIU/L for men. It mainly occurs to women of 20-40 years old and the main symptoms are irregular menstruation or even amenorrhea, abnormal secretion of breast milk. It can affect fertility in both women and men and male patients can have diminished testosterone production, low libido and erectile dysfunction.
Of cause, hyperprolactinemia can also be caused by other reasons besides renal failure such as liver disease(cirrhosis), pituitary adenomas, hypothyroidism, some medicines as well as other pathological conditions that can damage the hypothalamus or pituitary stalk like tumors, infections, etc.
Effective treatment for hyperprolactinemia should be based on accurate diagnosis. The common prescribed medicines for hyperprolactinemia are dopamine agonists which can suppress prolactin secretion. However just suppressing its production can not help solve the root problem, we must improve kidney functions so that prolactin can be cleared outsides naturally.
If it is confirmed to be caused by renal failure, besides the above mentioned medicines, more effective treatments should be received to slow down further deterioration of renal failure, repair renal damages and improve kidney functions. Because hyperprolactinemia means that renal functions have been severely damaged and there must be many other metabolic wastes and metabolic disorders in the patients’ body. Only if kidney functions are improved can the root problems be solved.
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