Illness conditions: Male, 50 years old.
Nausea and vomiting without obvious inducement
Blood pressure 190/100mmHg
Serum creatinine 1060umol/l
Blood urea nitrogen 40mmol/l
Have begun hemodialysis
Have very little or no urine output
Illness analysis: according to his illness history and laboratory tests, he is chronic renal insufficiency, end stage renal failure, renal anemia and renal hypertension.
His illness conditions are relatively serious because he has very little urine now which mean there are only very little residual renal functions. Internal disorders and excessive accumulation of wastes and toxins in end stage renal disease will damage various systems like nervous system, respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive system, etc. Especially the circulatory system lesions are the main cause of death of end stage renal failure patients such as severe arrhythmia, heart failure and coronary heart disease.
And since he has very little urine now, there is great risk of developing high blood potassium level, therefore close monitoring of electrolyte levels is of great importance.
Since his serum creatinine and BUN are much higher than the normal range, dialysis is first offered to help remove these harmful substances from the blood so as to create a favorable internal environment for more effective medicines and treatments to take effects.
Since he also has renal hypertension and renal anemia, according medicines are prescribed to lower blood pressure and rectify anemia.
Besides dialysis and symptomatic medicines, he often received herbal medicines---both oral intake and external application of herbal medicines. Herbal medicines have the functions of anti-coagulation, anti-inflammation, dilating blood vessels and degradation of extracellular matrix so as to improve hypoxia and ischemia in the kidneys and provide necessary blood, oxygen and other nutrition for repairing damaged renal intrinsic cells and tissues.
After scientific and systemic treatments, his hemoglobin has increase from 80g/l to 100g/l and serum creatinine and BUN has been decreased to 760 and 19.
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